Every breed is prone to certain health problems. Pugs have a predisposition for eye problems. Read this article and find out more.
The first thing many people think of when pugs come up in the conversation, are their big, cute eyes.
Unfortunately, these eyes are prone to a number of health problems.
So, what are the most common issues and can they be treated?
Every dog breed is different when it comes to personality, character, activity level, friendliness etc. And this is a great thing – imagine if every dog was the same! However, every breed has certain genetic predispositions that make them prone to some health issues. (1)
When it comes to pugs, one of their “soft spots” are their eyes. Every future pug owner should be aware of these problems in order to have realistic expectations. Read on and find out what they are.
Common Eye Problems In Pugs
We’ll take a look at the most common eye problems that affect pugs and explore a bit more about each problem in particular. Before you continue reading, check out the video below.
The condition got its name because it can turn one of the glands in the eye really red or pink – like a cherry. What leads up to it is an infected and inflamed tear duct gland. The third eyelid then slips out of position and starts sticking out of the eye corner. Apart from being pink or red, a cherry eye leads to increased production of tears and often pain. (2)
This is a common problem that can affect one or both eyes, but it’s quite rare that it affects both eyes at the same time. However, when one eye gets affected, it’s common for the other eye to become affected after a couple of months.
Sometimes medical treatment will be trialled, with antibiotics or anti-inflammatory eye drops. Most often, surgery is required to remove the tear duct or put it back in the correct place.
Cherry Eye is a condition of an infected and inflamed tear duct gland that can often be painful to dogs.
The cornea is the transparent membrane that covers the outer surface of the eye. An ulcer is a damaged area of the cornea and causes include eye trauma, chemical burn or some kind of infection. (3)
This is often a very painful condition for your dog. A pug with corneal ulcers will often squint, or keep the eye closed and rub it frequently.(4) In order to treat this condition, the vet will often prescribe antibiotic drops, pain-relieving medication and even surgery in some cases.
Corneal Ulcer is a painful condition of a infected or damaged membrane of the eye.
This occurs when one or more eyelashes grow out of parts of the eyelid where they shouldn’t. If this happens, these eyelashes start irritating the eye and cause significant discomfort to your dog. (5)
Signs indicating distichiasis are redness of the eye, discharge and an itchy eye. If you don’t treat this in time, it can lead to the development of corneal ulcers. The treatment usually consists of removing the extra hairs and using topical ointments in order to lubricate the eye. In some cases, surgery may need to be performed.
Distichiasis is when eyelashes grow from parts of the eyelid from where they irritate the eye.
This is a condition whereby the eyelid folds in on itself and starts to rub the surface of the eye. This often occurs due to the fact that pugs have large eyes and eyelids. (6, 7) When this happens, the eyelashes are pushed into the eye, leading to irritation, infections and sometimes corneal ulcers.
Entropion usually affects pugs that are about 6 months old. You will probably be able to tell that your pug has these problems if it’s constantly scratching the eye. The eye will also appear red and irritated. This condition can be treated by surgically reducing the size of the eyelid so it doesn’t happen again.
Entropion happens when the eyelid folds in on itself and irritates the surface of the eye.
Dry eye in pugs is one of the most common eye problems this breed deals with. It occurs when the tear duct isn’t producing enough liquid and the eye, as the name says, becomes very dry. When the eye isn’t lubricated enough, debris builds up and irritates the eye. (8)
If you notice that your pug is blinking more often and that the eye is red, it could be dry eye your pug is dealing with. This condition is most commonly treated using lubricating eye drops to keep the eyes moist.
Dry Eye develops in dogs whose tear ducts don’t produce enough liquid making the eye very dry.
Dogs, just like people, can develop cataracts. They can be inherited, as well as caused by trauma, inflammation or diabetes. (9) A cataract forms in the lens of the eye and it can lead to complete loss of vision in the worst-case scenario. (10) It’s even possible for the cataract to fall out of place in some cases, which is very painful. If this were to happen, surgical correction is necessary. Cataracts can be removed and corrected surgically.
Cataract is a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively opaque, resulting in blurred vision.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy
On the bright side, it’s not a painful condition and it usually affects senior dogs and commonly loss of vision occurs over a period of 1-2 years. Unfortunately, there is no known cure for it. However, your vet may recommend some supplements to help slow down the progression.
Progressive retinal atrophy is a condition that affects senior dogs and leads to a gradual loss of vision.
As you know, pugs are brachycephalic breeds – with flat faces and big eyes that stick out. As such, it’s much easier for them to get things stuck in their eyes when they’re exploring their surroundings. And dogs tend to do that.
Unfortunately, pugs and other similar breeds, are more likely to get injured when they’re looking around. It doesn’t have to be anything serious, like a scratch, but it could also be something that requires treatment depending on how much damage has been done.
Eye trauma is pretty common in pugs because their eyes stick out more than in other dog breeds due to their flat faces.
How To Treat Eye Problems In Pugs
The eye problems mentioned above are among the most common ones when it comes to pugs. It can sometimes be a bit difficult to determine which eye problem your dog is dealing with, as many have similar symptoms. In order to treat a condition, you first have to be able to recognize which one you are dealing with.
The vet will be able to carry out a full clinical exam of your dog, run tests if necessary and diagnose exactly what is wrong with your dog. However, it never hurts to be able to recognize the condition yourself. So, in this segment we’re focusing on how to recognize and treat cataracts, entropion, cherry eye, dry eye and progressive retinal atrophy.
Cataracts: Symptoms And Treatment
When a dog has cataracts, the symptoms include:
- Milky looking eyes. The lens in the eye appears cloudy, white or grey.
- Change in behavior due to bad vision. As a result, your dog can start bumping into things, misjudging distances and not recognize people – in general become clumsier.
If that’s the case, take your dog to the vet for examination. If it turns out your dog has cataracts, surgery can be performed to help your dog see normally again. (12) If that’s what you choose, a surgeon will remove the lens and replace it with an artificial one or break the cataract down using a laser.
Entropion: Symptoms And Treatment
You will be able to recognize this condition by looking for the following symptoms:
- Eyelid rolled up and inward.
- Swollen eye.
- Dog rubbing the eye.
- Eye appears red and irritated.
- Dog squinting or closing eye.
If you notice these symptoms, take your dog to the vet and get a diagnosis. If it’s entropion you’re dealing with, surgery is usually the recommended treatment. (13) The surgeon will remove a bit of the tissue under the eye, so that the eyelid sits correctly and no longer rubs on the surface of the eye.
Cherry Eye: Symptoms And Treatment
As mentioned, this is another common eye problem pugs are prone to. Symptoms to look out for are:
- A pink or red swelling at the inner corner of the eye.
- The eye appears red and swollen.
- Dog rubbing or scratching eye.
If you notice a “cherry” like swelling popping out of the corner of your dog’s eye, you can be pretty sure it’s cherry eye. However, take your dog to the vet for diagnosis and treatment. Cherry eye isn’t always painful, but if your pug shows discomfort it’s time to do something about it. Sometimes, eye drops might be prescribed. However, most of the time if you want to correct the problem, your dog will have to undergo surgery where the surgeon will replace the gland back into the correct place and stitch it so it doesn’t pop back out again. (14)
Dry Eye: Symptoms And Treatment
As the name says, a dog suffering from this condition has dry eyes. But, how can you tell if a dog’s eyes are dry?
- Dull, irritated and red eyes.
- Thick green discharge.
- Frequent blinking.
- Keeping the eyes shut or squinting.
After you’ve gotten your pug examined by a veterinarian and it’s clear it’s dry eye, your vet will determine a treatment plan. It usually consists of using regular eye drops or prescription medication. These are used in order to lubricate the eyes. Dry eye is unfortunately a chronic condition, so your dog will probably need lubricants and eye drops for the rest of his life.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy: Symptoms and Management
Unfortunately, this is a condition without treatment and it can progress all the way to complete blindness. Symptoms indicating your pug is suffering from this condition are the following:
- Night blindness. Observe how your dog behaves in the dark – if he/she bumps into things or people. This is a sign of PRA.
- Shiny eyes.
- Abnormal pupil reactions and dilation.
These are the most common signs, but you definitely have to see the vet for a proper eye examination. This is an inherited disease, so it’s also important to know if your dog’s parents suffered from it.
As mentioned, there is no treatment for this condition as of yet. What you should do is to make sure your dog continues to lead a good quality of life as possible. In some cases, changing the diet and using certain supplements can help to slow down the progression. If your pug has PRA, don’t breed her, as the disease can be transmitted to the next generation.
Always observe your dog and if something seems wrong, don’t ignore it!
This article has been medically reviewed by Dr Margarita Boyd, BVSc MRCVS.
Margarita graduated from the University of Liverpool, earning a Bachelor in Veterinary Science with distinction. She worked in small animal and equine practice for a few years, before choosing to focus solely on companion animals. She has developed a special interest in internal medicine and ophthalmology.