Breeding a Male Dog – All You Need To Know

Written by: Kristina Lalovic
In this article, we will go through the most frequent questions about the male dog breeding process. When is he too young or too old for breeding? Discover what it takes to do before mating when being an owner of a male dog.

Breeding a male dog is something that should never be taken lightly.

Breeding male dogs comes with a certain level of responsibility and require the right knowledge of breeding so everything can go smoothly and safely.

If you are interested in breeding male dogs, or you are just a complete beginner in dog breeding and mating this article is for you.

In this article we will cover the following:

  • Most frequent questions on how to breed your male dog
  • When should your dog start breeding and mating, and what can you expect in each phase
  • When is your male dog too old to participate in breeding, and when he is too young for the whole breeding and mating process
  • What can you expect from a male dog after mating

Before we continue and answer all of the following questions, we know that having puppies is great and that they are super cute, but breeding dogs should always be taken seriously.

Breeding your male dog comes with certain responsibilities and duties.

If you are not sure if breeding your male dog is something that you should do or not, have an honest and open talk with your veterinarian or experienced and responsible dog breeder on the pros and cons of breeding your male dog.

Now, let’s jump into the factors that are most relevant when it comes to breeding your male dog.

Important: Think about the responsibility that comes with studding a dog and choose to deal with papers first. Studding your dog with paper is much easier than studding your dog without paper. The female owner might not accept stud dogs without papers as it would negatively affect their efforts of raising the best bloodline possible.

When Can You Breed a Male Dog?

Let’s make it clear, the fact that your male dog started showing any kind of willing-to-mate behavior, doesn’t mean anything at all.

Dogs need to reach physical and mental maturity to provide a healthy litter.

Only once they are fully grown up they will avoid any potential health problems that might occur after breeding at a young age.

In extreme cases, breeding while being sexually immature can even result in injuries and death.

It is very important not to start breeding your puppy while he’s too young, but you should also be aware when your dog is simply too old to breed.

It is very important not to start breeding your puppy while he’s too young, but you should also be aware when your dog is simply too old to breed.

When Do Male Dogs Reach Sexual Maturity?

The age of maturity of your dog depends on his size. The bigger the breed, the older age that is necessary for your dog to be considered mature for mating.

While smaller dogs can be used as studs from the age of 12 until 18 months old, medium size dogs take 15 to 18 months in order to reach the same level of maturity.

If you own a dog or dogs or dogs of larger breeds, you can expect him to be a mature stud not before the age of 18-24 months. But, at what age can you breed your male dog?

When Is The Best Age To Breed A Male Dog?

The best age to breed your dog is above the age of 2. OFA doesn’t accept younger dogs as studs before that age as well.

Both female and male dogs have to be checked and confirmed in order to mate. They have to be in good health conditions that won’t produce a litter of puppies with health issues.

Some diseases and health problems in dogs don’t manifest any symptoms before the age of 2 years.

After this age, your dog can have a health check for mating at your vet, after which you will know whether your dog is a good candidate.

However, you should know that breeding is not recommended for dogs older than 8 years.

This is the case if your dog has good overall health. If not, the oldest age for breeding might be restricted to 5 years max.

How To Breed My Male Dog – Preparation Of The Stud

Your male dog has grown to his standard size and has reached the age of 2, meaning that he is ready to enter the breeding process.

Now that your dog is grown up and mature enough, you want to know how to breed your male dog, and what you should do next.

You should check your dog for health issues including:

  • His overall health
  • Genetic traits
  • Fertility

1. Health Tests Preparation

Before breeding a male dog, you need to make sure that your dog is in great shape and health.

Why is a health check so important? This way you are guaranteeing a healthy litter.

You can expect your veterinarian to check your dog’s:

  • Ears and eyes
  • Run a blood test and urinalysis

In most cases, you might need to do a genetic traits test, to have a full report on the dog’s genetic status.

Good to know: Doing a genetic test is especially important if your dog is not a pure breed and it ensures that the offspring won’t have diseases or genetic problems. This will make sure that there wasn’t any inbreeding in your dog’s ancestry.

Getting this information will help in matching your dog with a suitable mating partner.

If you haven’t brought your dog to a general check-up, don’t worry! Watch this video to see what your vet will do to do a basic health check.

Getting this information will help in matching your dog with a suitable mating partner.

If you haven’t brought your dog to a general check-up, don’t worry! Watch this video to see what your vet will do to do a basic health check.

Fertility Check

Even if this shouldn’t be an issue for healthy pups, some dogs may experience signs of infertility as a result of hormonal imbalance or some disorder or disease.

A fertility check will give you the clearest answers if you’re wondering if your dog is too young or too old to breed.

Fertility check includes an examination of your dog’s reproductive anatomy and prostate.

Often, the semen sample is collected to further the examination. Your vet might also want to know about the history of breeding.

However, not all factors that influence fertility are strictly related to health disorders or diseases.

It might not be a perfect time to breed your dog if he has suffered from a physical injury that will prohibit him to mount a female dog.

Again, some medications might influence your dog’s fertility, so before getting into the breeding phase consulting your vet about all the health aspects is a good idea.

Once it’s confirmed that your dog is fertile, you can proceed with looking for a perfect mating match.

Know that responsible dog breeders wait for their male dog to turn two years before the fertility test.

This is common age when fertility tests can be safely performed on male dogs.

This is something that cannot be done without a proper veterinarian service, so make sure that you trust your veterinarian (check this article if you want to learn how to find the right veterinarian).

Around this period of two years, you may notice signs a male dog is ready to mate.

The most common signs include:

  • Roaming
  • Restlessness
  • Urine marking behavior
  • Mounting behavior
  • In some cases dogs may even ejaculate without having any contact with a female dog

If you notice any of the listed behaviors, it is crucial not to punish your dog for acting the way he does, but instead talk with your veterinarian.

If you do not want to breed your dog, your veterinarian should suggest neutering.

2. Breeding Paperwork

Once the veterinarian confirms that your male stud is healthy, you can start dealing with paperwork.

Breeding paperwork is mostly focused on the breed’s standards, on the dog’s appearance and temperament.

To be 100% sure that your male dog follows the breed’s standards you can contact a breed club.

If your dog meets the breed’s standards, it will make the whole process much easier.

Although it’s not mandatory, registering your dog at a Kennel Club might help other dog owners know that your dog is a good candidate for breeding.

Additionally, you will need to claim ownership of your dog to recognize by a Kennel Club.

3. Determining The Ideal Mate

Before signing the stud contract you have to find your dog’s ideal female mate.

The dam shouldn’t be bigger than your dog and should suit your dog in terms of temperament and appearance.

Ensure that their bloodlines are compatible and that the female is a rather calm and friendly dog, as this will make mating less stressful.

Also, you have to make sure that both your dog and the dam have received all the necessary vaccine shots.

If it’s the first time your dog is being used as a stud, finding a female dog that has mated before would be quite helpful.

4. Create a Stud Contract

Before the breeding takes place, you should draw up a stud contract. But what is this contract about?

Well, it actually protects you and your stud’s rights on the offspring after the mating.

The stud contract contains details such as “where will breeding occur”, or what is the stud fee.

As a male dog’s owner, it is you that sets the price of a fee, but you can also opt for other options such as: “picking one puppy from the litter” or asking for one or two puppies from the litter.

However, if your dog is breeding for the first time, you probably won’t be able to charge too much for the fee.

Rather, charge a nominal fee that will ensure you cover health and fertility checks.

This contract should be signed by both male and female dog owners before the breeding occurred.

Good to know: Did you know that dogs can mate twice on the same day?

Before The Breeding

Now that you’ve found an ideal dam for your male dog, you need to make sure that the mating happens at the right moment. This, of course, depends on the female dog’s oestrus cycle.

The best moment for mating is in the Estrus phase of the heat cycle when the female is ready to mate and will more luckily accept a male.

This occurs, on average, from the 9th to the 14th day after the blood discharge appears.

Mating should occur on every second day in a way to increase the chances of impregnation.

So it should be the 9th, 11th, and 13th day or the 10th, 12th, and 14th, counting the first day of blood discharge as day 1.

Female dog owners will probably provide you with the information you need considering the ideal days for breeding.

1. Hygiene Check

Even if the stud’s role is much shorter in litter production, you will nevertheless have to prepare your dog before the breeding occurs.

Your dog should be thoroughly clean, especially in the genitals area as this will prevent giving the female dog an infection.

Apart from ensuring your dog is bathed and neat for breeding, keeping his peak physical condition is also very important.

Ensure your dog is getting a fair amount of exercise and a well-balanced, healthy diet.

On the day of the breeding, it’s smart to skip feeding your dog as he might vomit his lunch as soon as the mating is over.

Wait until it’s over and give your dog to eat only after everything’s finished.

2. The Mating and The Tie

As a male dog owner, you might have to monitor the mating procedure.

In case the canine couple has difficulties or starts behaving strangely, some of the owners would probably have to help them out.

What you have to be careful about is that dogs change their position during breeding facing up in opposite directions.

This position is called the tie, and it usually lasts from 10 to 30 minutes.

It is very important to keep the dogs from pulling one another so no one gets injured.

That’s why it is necessary to have at least one of the breeders monitor the breeding process.

What To Expect From A Male Dog After Mating?

In general, there should not be any too strange behavior in dogs after mating. There will be a certain movement but that is pretty much it.

Dogs separate when vascular structure decreases in size. When this occurs it’s common for males to lick their penises and prepuce briefly after separating.

Also, different studies claim that selective breeding of domestic dods does not affect lead to dog’s internal changes, nor leads to any changes in the dog brain structure.

How Many Times Can You Breed A Male Dog?

There isn’t a precise number of times you can breed a male dog, since studs don’t go through exhausting pregnancies and whelping periods that might affect a dog’s health condition.

Apparently, a male dog can breed multiple times from the moment he is fully grown.

However, the number of times your dog can be bred depends on several factors such as his overall health and fitness condition, as well as fertility levels.

If a stud is in good health, he’ll be able to produce high-quality sperm even up to an older age.

All potential health-related issues will appear once your stud reaches his adult age and develops into his grown-up size.

Once your vet establishes that your dog has no concerning health conditions to pass to the offspring, your stud will be ready to mate.

From this point on, you can breed your male dog as often as you want.

Some breeders mate their dogs just several times per year, while others mate them every week.

How strong can be the effects of breeding male dogs frequently?

Male dogs can be breed an unlimited number of times, although it is not recommended to breed them more than twice a day.

As long as the veterinarian approves breeding, your male dog can participate in the breeding process.

However, know that constant mating in short intervals will deplete a male dog’s sperm count.

What does this mean in practice? In practice, it may lead to lower pregnancy rates. Therefore, responsible breeders recommend mating male dogs every other day or once in three days.

Nonetheless, the first approach might be more successful than the latter because of the semen quality.

We’ll explain that in our answer to the next question.

How Long Does It Take A Male Dog To Build Up Sperm?

Even if it’s possible to mate male dogs as often as you want, it might be smarter to provide your dog with sufficient sexual rest between two matings. Why?

Namely, it takes 60 days for a stud to produce new spermcells and another 2 weeks for semen to mature.

The first two times of semen collection or the first two matings are usually the most successful ones.

The rule here is to ensure your stud is rested in between ejaculates so that the quality of the sperm remains good.

How To Arouse A Male Dog For Breeding?

When it comes to mating dogs you should be ready to assist if needed.

This is common and experienced dog breeders are well-known with this procedure:

  • As the first step, you should always allow the male dog to mount
  • As soon as the male dog begins to thrust you should gently massage the preputial sheath using one hand
  • To stimulate erection (if there is no interest in the bitch) you need to massage the sheath to stimulate erection
  • Once the erection occurs, pull the sheath behind the bulbus glands

Good to know: When starts shaking his tail around the bitch it means that he is aroused

Pros And Cons Of Breeding A Male Dog

Breeding is a serious process, and as mentioned earlier in this article – it should never be taken lightly.

Before you sign a stud contract know that in most cases it is not the only owner of the bitch who is responsible for puppies.

Could you take in all the puppies? How would you feel if one of your pups ended up in an animal shelter?

For these and many other reasons, there are many pros and cons of breeding a male dog.

Below are the most common ones

Pros Of Breeding A Male Dog

1. Advancing The Breed

Did you know that responsible dog breeds do not earn an enormous amount of money? Instead, they mostly get satisfaction from developing the breed further.

To many eliminating or minimizing undesired traits or even hereditary diseases is much more rewarding.

2. Working With Dogs

Some people just love being surrounded by dogs. Hence, any dog-related activity brings them the right kind of joy.

3. Development Of A New Breed

Did you know that new dog breeds are continually created?

Designed dogs are commonly seen noways, especially Poodle mixes who are often promoted as suitable dogs for those who suffer from allergies or want a dander-and-hair-free home, but still want a dog.

4. Promoting Responsible Dog Ownership

Breeders can help dogs have better and more safe homes.

They can achieve this by sharing their knowledge, choosing the owners carefully, and staying in touch with new owners.

Cons Of Breeding A Male Dog

1. Mastering The Craft

Professional dog breeding requires the right set of skills and knowledge.

Breeding dogs isn’t something that you should enter blindly.

Reputable breeders have the right knowledge and understand dogs’ genetics and psychology. They aim to improve the breed with each generation.

2. Time Investment

Dog breeding requires time.

Responsible breeds are active members of the canine community, and their obligations go beyond mating, feeding, and nurturing.

They invest their time in dog agility training, obedience, and how to socialize the puppy in the best way possible.

3. Implementing Standards

Breeding is a lot about standards.

If your puppies are not meeting the breed’s standards, could you be able to protect them? Do you know the traits of the ideal breed?

4. Home Sharing

Once puppies arrive you will have to find the right space for them. In most cases, responsible breeders share their home space with puppies.

This may sound like a lot of fun, but it requires real logistics and some serious skills in organizing everything, from the sleeping area to proper care.

This is something that can be not only messy but also very loud, so be prepared.

5. Cost

Dog breeding will demand constant financial investment. There will be an investment in:

  • Health tests
  • Genetic screening
  • Veterinary checks
  • Food
  • Bedding
  • Cleaning supplies

In some cases, breeders invest in a whelping pen and hot water bottles. Plus, there should be a budget on the side just in case, if anything goes wrong.

Can You Neuter A Male Dog After Breeding?

In general, a veterinarian will always recommend neutering your dog when it’s safe if you are not planning to breed your male dog.

Even if you want to breed your dog, even if it’s only a one-time occurrence, you should neuter him after that.

It is important not to neuter your dog too early and only when your veterinarian tells you that is safe to be performed.

The Bottom Line

When it comes to breeding dogs you need to think about responsibility. It is up to you to think about every step and any unplanned situation, as the dog’s safety comes first.

This article should be more than enough to set you on the right course for breeding male dogs, but that doesn’t mean that you should stop here.

Talk with your veterinarian, and search for experienced and responsible dog breeders for best breeding practices and real-life tips on the process.

Frequently Asked Questions On Breeding A Male Dog

1. What Does The Male Dog Owner Get When Breeding?

It is common for the male dog owner to receive a stud fee. In most cases, there is a guarantee of picking the first puppy.

How big is the stud dog fee? This may vary from breed to breed, but stud fees tend to be between $250 to $1,000.

2. Does Breeding Change A Male Dog?

This is not a rule, but in some cases, a male dog may be aggressive around other male dogs. Also, you may notice more territorial behaviors, such as extra scent marking.

3. How Much Does A Stud Dog Get?

There are no rules on how big the fee should be. Payment can be up to $1,000 or more, depending on the breed.

Still, the general rule of thumb is for stud dog owners to charge a fee equal to the price of one puppy. What is a stud fee? A stud fee is a fee paid to the owner of a male dog by the owner of the female dog to be bred.

4. How Much Does Dog Sperm Sell For?

If needed, a dog’s sperm can be collected and sold. Dog sperm can be sold for between $500 to $1,000 depending on the breed and pedigree.

5. What Is A Male Breeder Dog Called?

A male dog that is used for breeding is called a ‘stud’. A dog who has fathered a litter is called a ‘sire’.